The 4.0 magnitude quake was centered in the Guangling district, about 60 miles southwest of the provincial capital of Guiyang, according to the Xinhua news agency.
The shaking triggered landslides in two separate locations, killing the victims instantly with large boulders that tumbled down steep terrain.
Dozens of police officers were sent to the disaster zone, according to the Xinhua report.
The Guizhou Earthquake Information Bureau told reporters that the quake struck at 5:35 p.m. local time at a very shallow depth of only 5 miles.
No mention of Sunday's quake was made on the Web site of the U.S. Geological Survey in Boulder, Colo.
Guizhou, like other provinces in southwest China, is a quake-prone region and borders Sichuan province, where a 7.9 magnitude quake in May 2008 left almost 90,000 people dead or missing.