The shaking was centered 20 miles northwest of Van, where a 7.2 magnitude temblor on Oct. 23 killed more than 600 and also weakened buildings that collapsed during the latest shaking.
The largest building to collapse Thursday was a hotel that was being used to house journalists and relief workers.
Inspectors had earlier deemed the structure to be safe despite the powerful October 23 shaking.
Local residents protested as officials arrived at the disaster zone, saying they had not adequately warned the population of potential dangers from additional earthquakes.
The U.S. Geological Survey said that the 5.6 magnitude jolt struck at 12:05 a.m. local time at a depth of less than 6 miles.
Seismologists say that even though Thursday’s quake was centered near where the 7.2 magnitude quake struck, it was not an aftershock and qualifies as an separate earthquake.