Officials at the country's Ministry of Emergency Situations said about 20 buildings near the epicenter sustained serious damage from the shaking, which caused at least some damage to more than 1,000 structures.
The 5.6 magnitude quake struck at 9:40 a.m. local time about 11 miles south of Zaqatala, capital of Zaqatala Rayon along the Tala River.
Numerous aftershocks rocked the same area during the following week.
Residents in neighboring parts of Russia and Georgia also reported feeling the quake, but there were no reports of damage or casualties there.
Azerbaijan frequently experiences light earthquakes across most of the seismically active country. But officials say the force of the May 2 temblor was unusually strong.