The 5.2 magnitude shaking was felt across many parts of the province, including the capital, Banda Aceh.
Residents ran from their houses and many remained outside, fearing aftershocks.
The U.S. Geological Survey said the epicenter was about 20 miles southwest of the town of Reuleuet at a depth of 30 miles.
Tuesday’s relatively mild quake by Sumatra standards occurred near where a 6.1 magnitude quake killed at least 24 people and injured more than 200 others in early July.
The island of Sumatra is regularly hit by strong earthquakes, some centered just offshore.
A massive temblor in December 2004 killed 170,000 people in Aceh province and generated a massive tsunami that killed many others across the Indian Ocean.
In April last year, an 8.6 magnitude temblor shifted the seabed well off Banda Aceh, prompting another Indian Ocean-wide tsunami alert.